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In the late 1800s, David Daniel Palmer systematized the principles upon which modern chiropractic is based, suggesting that abnormal nerve function is the primary cause of disorders, and recommending adjustment of the spine as an effective therapy. The Palmer School of Chiropractic opened in 1895, and one-third of students were physicians. Acceptance of Palmer's principles in the medical community varied, and some early chiropractors were imprisoned (including Palmer himself). A split developed between chiropractors and medical doctors and between 1977-1987, an antitrust lawsuit was brought against the American Medical Association for systematic bias against the chiropractic profession which was ultimately successful.

Splits also existed within the chiropractic community. In the early 1900s.There were two thoughts on chiropractic principles: one was that incomplete or partial dislocation of the spine was the cause of disease. The other thought was based on disease based theories. As a result, two different chiropractic associations were founded between 1920-1926 reflecting this division: the International Chiropractic Association (ICA) and the American Chiropractic Association (ACA), respectively.

In 1972, chiropractic treatment became reimbursable by Medicare. In 1974, nationally recognized standards were adopted by the Council on Chiropractic Education (CCE), and were recognized by the U.S. Department of Education. All U.S. chiropractic colleges achieved accreditation by the CCE by 1975. Currently, all 50 U.S. states have statutes recognizing and regulating the practice of chiropractic.

Although Dr Olivia Valenzuela, BD, DNM is a trained massage therapist, she is not a licensed Chiropractor. Occasionally she may contract with local chiropractors in the area to provide these services in her office. She will also refer those needing chiropractic services to local resources. As a massage therapist, she is trained in Cranial Sacral, Neuromuscular, and Myofascial therapies and sub-contracts with licensed massage therapists throughout the Front Range corridor.


>  Pettman, Erland, PT, MCSP, MCPA, FCAMT, COMT. "A History of Manipulative Therapy." US National Library of Medicine National

    Institutes of Health PMC. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 15 Mar. 2007. Web.

    13 Feb. 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2565620/>

"Chiropractic, Spinal Manipulative Therapy, Spinal Manipulation." Information on Healthline. Healthline Networks, Inc., n.d.

     Web. 18 Feb. 2014. <http://www.healthline.com/natstandardcontent/alt-cervical-manipulation#5>

Third Step:  Manipulation

Manipulation therapy which is sometimes called manual therapy or manipulative therapy is a physical treatment that involves kneading and manipulating muscles and joints. It is used by many practitioners and doctors in the medical field including: physiotherapists, occupational therapists, chiropractors, massage therapists, and osteopaths to treat musculoskeletal pain and disability.

History: Spinal manipulation was used medicinally as early as 2700 B.C. in ancient Chinese Medicine. Hippocrates and Galen used manipulative techniques.

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